The Food Self-Sufficiency (Mapan) Village Programme which was first introduced in 2006, is an Indonesian Government programme initiated by the Food Security Agency. This programme aimed to improve food security and nutrition of the local people so that they can live a sustainable, healthy and productive life. This programme is the result of the integration and consolidation of the existing people's empowerment models. The Mapan programme stressed more on people's participation and the improvement of village officials' capacity in development of: (a) food availability by optimizing the available resources in a sustainable way; (b) distribution and access to food; (c) food quality and security; (d) food consumption quality; and (e) food handling quality (Nainggolan, 2006). The bottom-up action plan was conducted based on the potency and decision analyses to utilize natural resources in an efficient and sustainable way.
The development of a food security system is the main component in the Action Plan of Mapan Village which is conducted through the empowerment of natural and human resources. This programme required people to actively participate in achieving self-sufficiency in the provision, distribution and food consumption sub-systems by using the existing socio-economic institutions. The programme was implemented in four stages, namely: preparation, growth, development and self-sufficiency. Each stage has specific, inter-related activities. This Mapan Village programme is expected to become a trigger in achieving food security through cross-sectoral integration.
The focus of this programme was on food insecure areas and the recipients were poor households. Food insecurity mostly occurred in areas with limited natural resources. A diverse agro-ecosystem in one area affected a variety of implementation stages and impacts.
This article provides an illustration on the implementation and impacts of the programme in two villages that represent the dry land with dry climate agro-ecosystem (Central-South Timor regency) and dry land with wet climate (Ciamis regency). To accelerate the achievement of this programme, it was essential to examine factors that could be obstacles for programme implementation.
The implementation of Mapan Village action plan
The implementation of Mapan village action plan was influenced by the pre-conditions of programme preparation and an institutional role based on various sub-systems (provision, distribution and consumption). Each sub-system would interact with each other to produce the outputs according to the objective of the programme. The activities conducted during the preparation stage were, among others: (a) to determine the location and the recipients of the programme; (b) programme socialization; (c) institutional formation, development and identification; and (d) the empowerment of the programme recipient group. In the development stage, activities were focused on institutional reinforcement (social service, society and public service) as well as other activities related to food security. In the self-sufficiency stage, activities were focused on how to stimulate food self-sufficiency in households and at the regional level.
The precondition of action plan
Preconditions that could affect programme accomplishment were: (1) co-ordination with related stakeholders at the district level; (2) the selection of targeted village; (3) the recruitment of village escorting/extension staff; (4) the formation of affinity groups; and (5) programme socialization.
Co-ordination with stakeholders - The role of co-ordination among food security agencies or similar agencies at the district level strongly influenced Mapan programme implementation. Without transparent rights and liability (proven by the Regent Letter of Authority), the role of food security agency as programme co-ordinator could not be optimal. Through good co-ordination, programme from each institution could be directed to the targeted village. The monitoring result indicated that there was relatively good support from the inter-sectoral institutions in programme implementation in Ciamis, whereas in Central- South Timor (CST) it was moderate. The participation of inter-sectoral government institutions had a tremendous impact in the acceleration of programme accomplishment.
The selection of targeted village - The focus of Mapan programme was food insecure villages, with the criteria as follows: 30 per cent of its population were poor families; the natural and human resources were not well developed; and the village servants and societies had high response on the improvement of food security. The identification result showed that in the cases of Mapan village in Ciamis versus Central-South Timor, the poverty level remained high (52 versus 66 per cent), educational level was relatively low (74 versus 81 per cent households) with only up to elementary school level. However, under normal circumstances, around 78-99 per cent of households had their food supplies. In Java, only 16 per cent of households worked as farmers because agriculture is still dependent on land and the availability of land was limited. Outside Java, most households worked as farmers due to abundant land limited work opportunities outside the agricultural sector. Different characteristics among regions created diverse impacts of the programme.
The recruitment of village escorting/extension staff -The competency of escorting/extension staff was crucial in providing programme motivation, escort, and supervision. This was due to limited human resources and the accessibility to programme recipients. The monitoring results showed that escorting services in two sample locations indicated good capacity with sufficient and responsive people participation. For areas with high food insecurity level (CST), the role of escorting staff was somewhat effective in the implementation of action plan. Whereas for areas with easier opportunity to earn a living (Ciamis), the effectiveness of escorting role was lower.
The formation of affinity group - The affinity group (group formed based on the spirit of togetherness and unity to carry out tasks) was formed based on the domicile with various activities of the group members. Within Ciamis regency, there were 10 autonomous affinity groups (AAG) formed in Ciparigi village and another 10 AAG in Sukamukti village. In CST regency, there were 9 AAGs formed in each village of Oebello and Tuafanu. Through group management and empowerment, it was easy for AAG to consolidate and develop a good kinship system. Each group has succeeded in creating group business scheme (GBS) for the self-sufficiency in food supply. The management was focused on the technical and managerial aspects to make poor households managed to take accurate decisions on their business activities. The results showed that the AAG was able to formulate group regulation, such as monthly meetings, group work, members' fee, members' main savings, members' loan and members' business.
Programme socialization - The clear and precise information on Mapan Programme will have an impact on the arrangement and implementation of action plans in the field. What happened in the field was that there were some government aid programmes (low interest credit allocation programme), perceived by the recipients as a grant. To avoid any deviation, it is essential to have the lawful agreement (such as Letter of Authority issued by the Regent), and if there was intentional deviation, it became group responsibility.
The accelerated food security development was affected by the efficiency of socio-economic institutions in empowering the natural and human resources through productive activities. The more fertile agro-ecosystem conditions and better distribution and consumption infrastructures of the products produced had affected the variety of options to do productive business. The larger obstruction on the economic environment was the more limited business options for the group. As an example, for the CST regency which is located in the dry and fallow areas, the agricultural business which was beneficial was seedling and cow / calf operation. The involvement of non-poor group members gave positive impact on the activities of the organization (Ciamis regency). The role of the micro/village financial institution (MVFI) as credit administrator for productive activities (off-farm, on-farm and non-farm) was implemented relatively well. However, limited budget and self-financing ability (for group) have caused sluggish growth of self-sufficiency in food security sector.
General impact of Mapan village programme
Mapan village programme was carried out inter-sectorally and not only on food security issues but also on the improvement of supporting facilities. In Ciamis regency the infrastructure renovation and development programme worked well, while in CST regency it was insufficient. This was due to better support for the inter-sectoral programme in Ciamis regency compared to CST. In addition, the one-year preparation was considered to be deficient, particularly for regions with unprepared physical and institutional supporting infrastructure.
The institutions developed during Mapan village programme were to strengthen horizontal connections but remained weak for the vertical ones. These institutions aimed to facilitate the distribution of assistance and monitoring. However, their role was inadequate in social capital. Institutional improvement was using structural means instead of cultural. Nonetheless, the empowerment for programme recipients carried out since the preparation stage (training and escorting) had an impact on the capacity building and made easier access to AAG. For this particular aspect, again the implementation in Ciamis regency was better than in CST which was due to the dissimilarity in the quality of human resources between the two regions.
The positive impact of the programme was the decline in food-insecure households. There was relative improvement in food supply and access in Ciamis regency and quite moderate in CST. The low funds allocated for productive business capital and limited human resources became obstacles in expanding economic activities. The economic growth in Ciamis regency was moderate while in CST was limited.
Impact on food security
The food supply sub-system
The activities conducted within this sub-system included: (a) production increase and food access through on-farm, off-farm and non-farm activities; (b) the diversification of food production which covered technology, processing and post-harvest development as well as local food production; and (c) improvement on the fulfilment of family, villagers and regional food reserves through the development of family and village food barns / storage facilities.
The activities within Ciamis regency were able to increase food supplies and access as well as a food production diversification. Related to food supply and economic access, there were some issues raised including: (a) rice intensification could increase the productivity around 1-1.5 tons/ha; (b) the increase of secondary crops productivity was deficient; (c) vegetable growing in pots; (d) livestock rearing through sheep fattening and partnership system for broiler chicken and ducks; (e) fishery unit by growing fresh-water carps, nila, catfish and lobsters; (f) improvement on off-farm activities, such as producing banana chips, kijing traditional cakes, coconut sweets, cassava flour, bamboo and mats plaiting; and (g) improvement on non-farm activities, such as: home industry, kiosk and mobile trade system, food business/caterer.
For CST regency, the improvement on food supply and access as well as food production diversification remained insufficient. This was due to the following: (a) low human resources quality; (b) the application of farming technology remained moderate resulting from difficulties in the availability and access to technology; and (c) limited services in information, production facilities and funding sources. For non-farm business, the activity was only ikat weaving production.
The supply of food reserves through the development of family food barns-storage facilities in Sukadana village (Ciamis regency) was quite secure. Most AAG families had sufficient staple food reserve for two to four months ahead even though the village food reserve was not available yet. In Sukamukti village, familiy food reserve was more varied. Non-rice food reserve was stored in the form of processed products such as gaplek (dried cassava) and oyek (rice formulated from dried cassava). When village food reserve was formed, each AAG member was obliged to store 50 kg gabah (unhulled rice grain) per harvest. These reserves will be distributed during food shortage period.
In CST regency, household food reserve has been practised a long time. Most households had food reserve for at least one season. Food production was stored for consumption and seeds for the next planting season. In Oebelo village, there was a group food barn established where paddy and corn were stored from member and will be lent out to the needy members during food shortage period.
The pre-condition distinction between Ciamis and CST regencies created different anticipations. Future anticipation for Ciamis regency related to food availability and access is the strengthening and modernization of food barn/reserve. As for CST regency, they required improvement in farm management and technology adoption, as well as food barns.
Food distribution sub-system
The productive business in food distribution sub-system was as follows: (1) developing food trade and distribution by group members or at the village level; (2) developing of collective product marketing at the village level; (3) development of markets at the village level as well as in wider regions; and (4) growth of market information systems (prices and commodity types) as the basis for group business planning.
In Ciamis regency, the activities in the distribution sub-system were not optimal. This programme has not been able to stimulate trade to accelerate food distribution whereas product marketing was done individually and market establishment and information were not developed well. This created a low bargaining position for secondary crops and horticultural commodities and marketing problem for processed food derived from secondary crops. In the case of paddy, a pending sales system was developed selling dried unhusked paddy.
Most food consumption in CST regency was local food based, except for Tuafanu village where rice for consumption had to be brought in from other regions. The rice necessity was relatively small (approx. 25 per cent) and mostly received from the Raskin (rice for the poor) programme. Overall, there was no major problem in food distribution. The problem occurred when there was harvest failure which caused the disturbance in food provision for this region.
The Mapan village programme in Tuafanu village has not been able to create the trade for food and collective marketing. The undeveloped trade sector in this village was mostly due to: (a) limited knowledge on trade business; (b) limited capital; (c) less access to markets outside the village; and (d) poor transportation facilities and infrastructure.
In Oebelo village, Mapan village programme was able to create collective marketing for rice, corn and tamarind, even though it was limited within one AAG. As it progressed, the marketing for tamarind was done through groups. The impact of this collective marketing was the increasing bargaining position for farmers and better prices received by farmers. In the future, the empowerment of AAG in trade business needs to be improved and supporting facilities will be required. In its development stage, those facilities were not provided yet.
Food consumption sub-system
The activities included in food consumption sub-system were: (1) the improvement on food consumption varieties based on regional resources; (2) improvement in family nutrition; and (3) the development of processing technology and processed food products.
Staple food consumption in CST regency diversified to corn, rice, tubers and banana. Corn was a staple food with a proportion of 75 per cent while the other 25 per cent was rice. The tubers and banana were consumed during food shortage/dry season when the stock of corn and rice was running low. Vegetables and animal protein consumption was less for this region as vegetable growing was not developing well. In general, there has been a consumption shift for programme recipient households by consuming vegetables and protein sources from beans, while animal protein was rarely consumed. In relation to family nutrition improvement, the assorted, nutritious, balanced, safe and healthy (B3AS= Indonesian version abbreviation) eating habits need to be intensified. In addition, there is a need to broaden the provision of supplementary food and develop processed food products.
In CST regency, processing of several commodities has taken place during development stage: (a) corn processing: from cob to dry-shelled corn then processed to milled corn, mixed with mungbean and groundnut; (b) the processing of groundnut to fried groundnut; and (c) coconut processing to become copra and VCO (virgin coconut oil).
Several types of local food crops (ganyong = canna edulis, cassava, taro and others) can be utilized as staple food. If they were using improved processing technology these staple foods could become 'ready to consume' products. However, the facilitation for the improvement of processing technology and processed food products remained inadequate. The improvement of processing technology could increase the value added of a product thereby increasing access to food. Based on field research, the processing of tamarind has potential. The abundant tamarind production could be processed through pressing, packing, 'sweet-sour' candy or healthy drink products. Local people could benefit from the value added of the products since it created new employment.
In Ciamis regency, rice still dominated staple food consumption. There should be an agricultural extension on the diversification of a carbohidrate-source type of food, such as: cassava and ganyong which are cheaper than rice. Similar to CST regency, the B3AS eating habits also needs to be intensified here, as well as the improvement on processed food products.
In Ciamis regency, to give value added to the product, some improvement on post-harvest handling were executed. Product processing was modified into long-lasting and easy-served products. Marketing aspects remained a problem. To overcome this problem required a hard work starting from internal elements as the product produced was considered unconventional with limited usages.
- Mapan village programme was a food security programme in food-insecure areas with activities such as: people's empowerment, infrastructure and insitutional development. Intitutional performance remained inadequate particularly in social capital improvement. A relatively short programme phase resulted in non-optimal outcome. The general impact varied and included improvements in infrastructure and a development programme based on the diversity of programme recipent villages. During the three-year programme, there was a significant decline in the number of food-insecure villages.
- For the supply sub-system, in Ciamis regency there was an increasing productivity of paddy, secondary crops and vegetables, while in CST regency the increase was not that significant due to the dissimilarity in natural and human resources in the two regencies. Related to increasing access (in purchasing power) on food, this programme has been able to create income improvement from livestock rearing (sheep, broiler chicken, duck and fish) as well as from off-farm / non-farm activities. The prospects were: for Ciamis regency was the strengthening and modernization of rice barns-storage facilities / food reserve; for CST regency where production increases and food access were insufficient, the prospect would be improvements in farming business, technology adoption and food barns-storage facilities.
- There was no difficulty in food distribution in Ciamis regency. For paddy in particular, the delayed-sales system has been practised but product marketing in groups has not been developed. For non-rice commodities and processed products, there are still obstacles in marketing with low bargaining position for farmers. In CST regency, there was also no obvious problem in food distribution since it was based on local commodities. Problems arose when there were harvest failures and natural disasters. In this region, collective marketing started to develop even though on a limited scale. The impact of this collective marketing was an increase in farmers' bargaining position and better prices received by farmers. In the future, the empowerment in trade needs to be strengthened, and facilitation in marketing expansion and diversification will be required. Up to the developing stages, these facilitations have not been formed.
- In Ciamis regency, major food consumption was dominated by rice. The future prospect will be the intensification of non-rice food diversification and changing eating habits (assorted, nutritious, balanced, safe and healthy). In CST regency, major food consumption has been diversified based on the availability of local food. With this programme, there has been an increase in vegetable consumption and protein from pulses, whereas the consumption of animal protein remained inadequate. It required the enhancement in B3AS eating habits, intensification and expansion of supplementary food provision as well as the improvement of processed food products.
1 Desa Mapan (Food Self-Sufficiency Village) Programme in Central-South Timor and Ciamis Regencies, Indonesia is a Research collaboration between Food Security Agency of the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture with CAPSA-ESCAP and ICASEPS, Bogor.