Food security enhancement is one of the main objectives of agricultural development. In Indonesia, agricultural and rural development, such as food security and the reduction of poverty and the number of food-insecure households, is being determined by the changing dynamics of the international economy and the domestic strategic environment. The studies contained in this working paper provide an analysis of the current status and suggest future policy directions for poverty reduction strategies in the context of decentralization in Indonesia. The study was conducted in three parts, they examine the achievement made in rural and agricultural development and poverty alleviation. Part 1 and 2 directly address food security and poverty. Part 3 focuses on the empowerment of rural households facing food insecurity.