This paper is on social protection, role of social protection in food security and the social policy challenges of ensuring access to food for all. It starts with a discussion of the significance of social protection in human development, followed by an examination of the demographic trends in the context of pressures on food security related to migration and changing dependency ratios. Migrants, both international and internal, ethnic minorities, tribal people and other discriminated groups are vulnerable to food insecurity. The paper, thus, discusses the need for social policies for these food insecure groups. The paper explores social protection for people who are exposed to shocks, with special reference to agriculture and employment. This is followed by a design of social protection measures for small farmers who are subject to shocks, seasonality and venerability. Finally a brief recital of social protection measures for tackling climate change has been included bearing in mind that there is paper with a fuller discussion on climate change and food security. The paper also considers institutional arrangements in relation to food security and how good governance is fundamental in improving the life of those at greatest risk of food insecurity.